ppm – parts per million

What is ppm?

ppm is an abbreviation of parts per million. ppm is a value that represents the part of a whole number in units of 1/1000000.

ppm is dimensionless quantity, a ratio of 2 quantities of the same unit.

For example: mg/kg.

One ppm is equal to 1/1000000 of the whole:

1ppm = 1/1000000 = 0.000001 = 1×10-6

One ppm is equal to 0.0001%:

1ppm = 0.0001%

ppmw – abbreviation of parts per million weight, a subunit of ppm that is used for part of weights like milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg).

ppmv – abbreviation of parts per million volume, a subunit of ppm that is used for part of volumes like milliliters per cubic meter (ml/m3).

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Parts-per notations

Other part-per notations are written here:

Chemical concentration

ppm is used to measure chemical concentration, usually in a solution of water.

Solute concentration of 1 ppm is solute concentration of 1/1000000 of the solution.

The concentration C in ppm is calculated from the solute mass msolute in milligrams and the solution mass msolution in milligrams.

C(ppm) = 1000000 × msolute / (msolution + msolute)

Usually the solute mass msolute is much smaller than the solution mass msolution.

msolute ≪ msolution

Then the concentration C in ppm is equal to 1000000 times the solute mass msolute in milligrams (mg) divided by the solution mass msolution in milligrams (mg):

C(ppm) = 1000000 × msolute (mg) / msolution (mg)

The concentration C in ppm is also equal to the solute mass msolute in milligrams (mg) divided by the solution mass msolution in kilograms (kg):

C(ppm) = msolute (mg) / msolution (kg)

When the solution is water, the volume of mass of one kilogram is approximately one liter.

The concentration C in ppm is also equal to the solute mass msolute in milligrams (mg) divided by the water solution volume Vsolution in liters (l):

C(ppm) = msolute (mg) / Vsolution (l)

Concentration of CO2

The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is about 388ppm.

Frequency stability

The frequency stability of an electronic oscillator component can be measured in ppm.

The maximal frequency variation Δf, divided by the frequency f is equal to the frequency stability

Δf(Hz) / f(Hz) = FS(ppm) / 1000000

For example

Oscillator with frequency of 64MHz and accuracy of ±400ppm, has frequency accuracy of

Δf(Hz) = ±400ppm × 64MHz / 1000000 = ±25.6kHz

So the oscillator produces clock signal within the range of 64MHz±25.6kHz.

The supplied frequency variation is caused from temperature change, aging, supply voltage and load changes.

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PPM conversions

How to convert ppm to decimal fraction

The part P in decimal is equal to the part P in ppm divided by 1000000:

P(decimal) = P(ppm) / 1000000

For example

Find the decimal fraction of 500ppm:

P(decimal) = 300ppm / 1000000 = 0.0005

How to convert decimal fraction to ppm

The part P in ppm is equal to the part P in decimal times 1000000:

P(ppm) = P(decimal) × 1000000

For example

Find how many ppm are in 0.0073:

P(ppm) = 0.0073 × 1000000 = 7300ppm

How to convert ppm to percent

The part P in percent (%) is equal to the part P in ppm divided by 10000:

P(%) = P(ppm) / 10000

For example

Find how many percent are in 6ppm:

P(%) = 9ppm / 10000 = 0.0009%

How to convert percent to ppm

The part P in ppm is equal to the part P in percent (%) times 10000:

P(ppm) = P(%) × 10000

For example

Find how many ppm are in 6%:

P(ppm) = 9% × 10000 = 90000ppm

How to convert ppb to ppm

The part P in ppm is equal to the part P in ppb divided by 1000:

P(ppm) = P(ppb) / 1000

For example

Find how many ppm are in 9ppb:

P(ppm) = 9ppb / 1000 = 0.009ppm

How to convert ppm to ppb

The part P in ppb is equal to the part P in ppm times 1000:

P(ppb) = P(ppm) × 1000

For example

Find how many ppb are in 8ppm:

P(ppb) = 8ppm × 1000 = 8000ppb

How to convert milligrams/liter to ppm

The concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to the concentration C in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and equal to 1000 times the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L), divided by the solution density ρ in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = C(mg/kg) = 1000 × C(mg/L) / ρ(kg/m3)

In water solution, the concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to 1000 times the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L) divided by the water solution density at temperature of 20ºC, 998.2071 in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and approximately equal to the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L):

C(ppm) = 1000 × C(mg/L) / 998.2071(kg/m3)1(L/kg) × C(mg/L)

How to convert grams/liter to ppm

The concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to 1000 times the concentration C in grams per kilogram (g/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the concentration C in grams per liter (g/L), divided by the solution density ρ in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = 1000 × C(g/kg) = 106 × C(g/L) / ρ(kg/m3)

In water solution, the concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to 1000 times the concentration C in grams per kilogram (g/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the concentration C in grams per liter (g/L), divided by the water solution density at temperature of 20ºC 998.2071 in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and approximately equal to 1000 times the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L):

C(ppm) = 1000 × C(g/kg) = 106 × C(g/L) / 998.2071(kg/m3) ≈ 1000 × C(g/L)

How to convert moles/liter to ppm

The concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to the concentration C in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the molar concentration (molarity) c in moles per liter (mol/L), times the solute molar mass in grams per mole (g/mol), divided by the solution density ρ in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = C(mg/kg) = 106 × c(mol/L) × M(g/mol) / ρ(kg/m3)

In water solution, the concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to the concentration C in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the molar concentration (molarity) c in moles per liter (mol/L), times the solute molar mass in grams per mole (g/mol), divided by the water solution density at temperature of 20ºC 998.2071 in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = C(mg/kg) = 106 × c(mol/L) × M(g/mol) / 998.2071(kg/m3) ≈ 1000 × c(mol/L) × M(g/mol)

How to convert ppm to Hz

The frequency variation in hertz (Hz) is equal to the frequency stability FS in ppm times the frequency in hertz (Hz) divided by 1000000:

Δf(Hz) = ± FS(ppm) × f(Hz) / 1000000

For example

Oscillator with frequency of 64MHz and accuracy of ±400ppm, has frequency accu0racy of

Δf(Hz) = ±400ppm × 64MHz / 1000000 = ±25.6kHz

So the oscillator produces clock signal within the range of 64MHz±25.6kHz.

ppm to ratio, percent, ppb, ppt conversion table

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